A large number of devices that facilitate the process of caring for the garden and lawns are used on the dacha plot. We are talking about irrigation systems. There are many different types of sprinklers that can be installed on the property, but they must be monitored.
Timers have been developed to minimize human effort in this area. They allow to provide the best mode of moisture application to the soil in different climatic conditions.
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Advantages of the system
People involved in gardening and horticulture do not always have enough time to constantly monitor the quality and completeness of the humidification. After all, the duration of this process can be quite long. Therefore, timers for automatic irrigation are in considerable demand.
By using them, you don’t have to use hoses or control the on/off of the irrigation complex. And the amount of moisture that goes into the ground will be sufficient.
Applying this approach provides dachshunds with such benefits:
- More efficient use of water for horticultural purposes;
- Automation of the sprinkling process;
- Optimization of soil condition parameters in terms of moisture, avoiding a lack or excess of moisture;
- the possibility of selecting the most suitable irrigation mode;
- reliability and durability of the network.
Principle of operation.
The functioning of irrigation structures of the automatic type is based on hydrodynamic laws. This involves the presence of gravity headers. The tank with water is placed at a height of 3-5 m. Pumping devices can be used for its filling.
The supply of water into the canal from the reservoir is made without the action of pumps under the action of a small pressure. It is enough to supply moisture to the beds. Timers for gravity systems allow to provide a mode of rational water use, to correct time and volume of supplied liquid.
This device is connected by threaded connections to the gravity header and irrigation circuit. The design of a particular model affects the principle of operation. But its very mechanism at a certain interval opens/closes the ball-type faucet or press at the solenoid valve. Water will be directed to the bed with a given interval.
If you have a more complex multi-circuit arrangement, then installing a tank for gravity water transfer will not be sufficient. You will need to buy and install a pump.
Mechanical control device
This type of irrigation control device is in the budget class, but is quite reliable. It is not necessary to have a permanent power supply. The valve is actuated by a special spring.
However, manual human intervention is required to activate the mechanism. Therefore, it is recommended to use it in combination with battery-operated solenoid valves or electric control units.
This mechanism is suitable for semi-automatic irrigation systems. Once a person has turned on the device, it can turn off on its own after a specified period of time – up to 72 hours.
It is possible to apply this scheme in those cases when the owner himself is at the site and can control the whole process of water inflow. At a given moment, the mechanism is actuated, which causes the valve to shut off. It is necessary to wind the spring manually.
Electronic devices with mechanical mechanism
Often a plot of land is located far from the house. Therefore, the owner does not always have the opportunity to regularly visit it and set the watering mode manually.
In such cases, an electromechanical device comes in handy. It has the ability to be set for a long period of up to 7 days. The maximum duration of operation is 120 minutes. At this moment, the mechanism is triggered and irrigation is carried out according to the planned scenario.
This type of drip irrigation timer has the following advantages:
- affordable price;
- Ensuring the automatic principle of the entire system;
- ease of setting modes;
- reliability and efficiency.
At the same time, it is not possible to connect additional control sensors to such a fixture, which makes it impossible to regulate fluid flow.
To select the operating parameters you need:
- Open the cover.
- Use the left lever to specify the starting interval. The maximum limit is 72 h. The initial operation countdown is done by the activation time of the device.
- Use the right hand lever to set the duration of the single sprinkling with a maximum step of 2 h.
This option is suitable for treating large areas that are away from the cottager’s home. Effective for installation in fields.
Intelligent control systems
Software control allows you to fully automate the watering process by setting additional parameters. It is possible to fix the mode for a long period of time, which is important for creating optimal growing conditions for plants in the garden or vegetable garden.
The number of possible program options can be up to 16 units. The mode is matched to each type of crop. However, the high cost limits the use of the programmable device on open fields without reliable protection.
Options that can be additionally connected to the device include:
Rain sensor. Effective when installed in an open space, because it takes into account the parameters of rainfall in the range of 3-25 mm. A signal is sent to the control unit, and the irrigation process is stopped. Humidification will not be performed during this period.
Sensor for monitoring the fullness of the volume in the tank. When the level drops to a critical level, it is the basis for automatic connection of a diaphragm pump to pump up the correct amount of liquid.
Ground moisture control sensor – allows you to optimize the microclimate in the ground. Excessive soil moisture or its dryness is monitored. With this in mind, irrigation is increased or limited.
Although special fittings and hoses are included, the problem of use is not the connection. Installing the plant watering timer is complicated in terms of setting up the software. It requires:
- disconnect the cover;
- activate the power button, e.g. Time;
- after the mode selection parameters appear, use the Set button to set the current time data;
- set the operating parameters for each day of the future period;
- with the help of the program selection item to specify additional options.
Each model has its own peculiarities of mode programming. Therefore, it is necessary to study the setting instructions beforehand.
Each type has its own specifics of setup and connection. Initially, you need to decide on the type of irrigation and assess the possibility of access to your plot.
Water supply mechanism
When controlling electronic devices, a method of mechanically controlling the water supply is important. A solenoid valve or ball timer with a valve can be used for this purpose.
A solenoid valve operates as follows. Power is applied to the coil. This generates an electromagnetic field which causes the core to move inside the solenoid, shutting off water movement. When the power is turned off, the core moves in the opposite direction, opening a gap for fluid movement.
But another, opposite principle of action is possible. If there is no magnetic field, the spring will force the valve to close. The appearance of power turns on the feeding system.
The action of the ball valve is based on the reducer opening or closing. Its operation is set by an electric charge. When activated, the system starts up. This can be identified by the characteristic noise of the motor together with the gearbox.
What needs to be considered?
In the photo of the irrigation timer you can see a variety of its types and models. Connecting them is simple enough. However, there are two peculiarities to consider:
It is obligatory to observe the correct connection in the direction of water flow. To do this, look at the inlet/outlet arrows on the timer.
Longevity of operation depends on the quality of the water flowing through. To avoid clogging by debris or coarse particles, it is imperative that purification filters be installed.
The use of these devices is most effective in single-channel gravity-type schemes. Nozzles are connected to the main line, from which the spray is made along a given radius within the irrigation sector. A timer helps control this process.
On large plots, the multi-channel principle is used with several mains lines connected. To each you can connect separate nozzles or install special devices for drip sprinkling. But it is advisable to use a pump in this case.
The use of timers in irrigation networks can significantly improve the quality of maintenance of seedbeds. Improving the microclimate in the soil increases yields. Also, dacha owners save resources, they do not require unnecessary physical efforts to maintain their land plots.
Photo of the irrigation timer