Brief content of the article:
Characteristics and nuances of a brick stove for baths
In any person, the bath evokes positive emotions, gives a charge of energy and maintains health. Brick heater. will ensure the safety, comfort of the procedure and the quality of steam. The owner will need to decide on the design and materials, think about the dimensions, as well as the type of fuel.
Bath Stoves have the following features:
- View. Furnace With a sauna heater – A cobblestone container, closed or open. They play the role of a heat accumulator, which increases its retention time in the steam room.
- Design. The furnace consists of: furnace, grates, chimney and ash pan (where the ash accumulates).
- Weight. Depends on size. FurnacesThe stove can weigh from 1 ton to 1 ton 200 kg, so for its construction it is necessary to equip a solid base.
- Fuel. Can run on electricity, natural gas, but traditionally the stove is stoked with wood.
Basic parameters of a brick sauna stove:
- Design. Many bathhouse owners prefer models with a heated water tank on top or underneath.
- Dimensions. Mainly depend on the square footage of the room you plan to heat. The base area of the sauna heater is 3.5×4 or 4×5 bricks. The height of the structure without taking into account the chimney is 1 m 680 mm or 2 m 100 mm.
Basic requirements for brick stoves with a sauna heater
An important element of the Russian bath is the heater, so there are serious requirements for its arrangement:
- Smoke and gases must not enter the room where the stove is located;
- Ability to heat the air under the ceiling up to 95 C in a short time, while being economical;
- It must be so designed that the heat accumulated by the stones will be retained for a long time;
- The furnace may not take up much space;
- The volume of water to be heated should be at the rate of 15 liters per person.
Tip! It is ideal to choose an open container for a bathhouse: it is easier to take care of and more convenient to fill. To avoid water freezing, drain it completely in winter.
Advantages and disadvantages of a brick sauna heater
Most homeowners prefer to equip proven brick designs.
The advantages of a sauna heater:
- Energy Independence. In the presence of power failures and lack of gas supply, Brick sauna heater – Perfect.
- Comfort. The furnace gives soft heat and rich, but at the same time light steam. It is easy to breathe in the steam room, which is important for those who like to steam often.
- Heat capacity. The furnace retains heat for 8 hours and is able to heat several rooms at once.
- Economical. There is no need to install electricity or bring in a gas line, and then pay the bills for the energy resources consumed. Wood is a cheap option for heating your sauna.
- Fire Safety. Brick furnaces, due to their design features, are fully compliant.
- Eco-friendliness. The stoves are made of bricks and are heated with firewood. All materials are safe for human health.
- Design. Because of the design, some ovens are a true work of art.
Disadvantages of a brick oven:
- Care. The ash drawer must be cleaned constantly and the chimney must be cleaned at least once a year.
- Erection. Masonry is a complex process that only a competent stove builder can do.
- Dimensions. A large-sized sauna heater will take up a lot of usable space in the steam room.
- Time. The furnace has to be melted, and it takes hours to warm up the steam room.
- Cost. A sauna stove. – It’s not a cheap pleasure. You need to arrange the base, buy quality materials and pay for the services of a stove-maker.
Attention! The brick stove is placed so that all rooms of the bath are heated. The front part with the firebox and the ash drawer is placed in the anteroom.
Safety precautions for installing a brick sauna stove
The basic rule of fire safety is to properly insulate the brick structure from the wood surfaces.
Safety rules for installing a sauna stove:
- Foundation. Adhering to certain rules, equip a solid foundation.
- Chimney. A chimney runs through the ceiling and roof. It is necessary to protect the touching surfaces from overheating as much as possible, while preserving the tightness of the steam room. There must be a gap between the elements of the building and the pipe, which must be filled with fireproof material.
- Placement of the sauna heater. The main requirement is that the adjacent wooden surfaces must be protected against overheating. The distance between the walls and the sauna heater must be at least 0.5 m and the firebox door 1 m 50 cm.
- Insulation. Behind the stove, the wall is protected with brickwork and tin, which is also placed on the floor to protect it from embers that have fallen out of the fire.
Types of brick stoves for baths
Basic options for kindling:
- Black. This type of stove was especially popular in the villages. The main feature of the sauna stove is the absence of a chimney. Due to this there is more than enough aroma and steam in the room. The disadvantage – you can steam only when the fuel is completely burned.
- Gray. Economical version of the stove with a chimney, which makes the room of the bath heats up much faster.
- In white. The most acceptable design. With this type, there will be no soot traces in the room, and the heat is retained longer. Disadvantage: it takes a long time to warm up.
- With a stove. The most practical option. The tank, covered with a brick wall on three sides, is installed on a cast-iron stove. Thanks to this, the water stays hot longer. The stones are placed over the chimney. In some cases, the order of arrangement may be different.
Warning. The graystone is the simplest construction option.
Brick sauna heater stove Divides into two categories in terms of action:
- Permanent. Stones are placed on a slab or in a box of metal. They are not heated by open fire, but by the transfer of heat from one material to another. A distinctive feature – it is possible to heat even if there are people in the room. Brick sauna stove with closed heater Prevents combustion products from entering the steam room.
- Intermittent. The stones are placed on a metal grate directly over the fire. Water is poured directly on them only when the wood has burned completely. Brick sauna stove with open heater Requires periodic heating.
Choice of materials for building an open-stone stove
Two kinds of refractory bricks are used:
- Red full-body. It is used for masonry of the body of the sauna heater, decorative elements and the chimney. For the construction of a small structure 300 pieces are enough, for a large sauna heater – up to 1000 pieces.
- Fireclay. Does not lose strength, even when heated up to 1400 C. Perfectly absorbs heat and cools down slowly, keeping the heat in the room as long as possible. According to the parameters is much better than other types. Due to the high cost, it is used exclusively for the furnace arrangement.
Tip! The quality of bricks is checked by tapping the material with the handle of a trowel. If there are imperfections or defects, the sound will be muffled.
Tools and materials for building a sauna heater:
- Mortar. Mixed only on the basis of clay and sand. Cement is not suitable for this, as it crumbles when heated, destroying the masonry.
- Insulator. Any heat-resistant material that is used to insulate surfaces to prevent overheating will do.
- Furnace Casting. You’ll need a stove damper, steel stone and water tanks, a fire grate, and cast iron doors.
- Tools. Utensils for kneading mortar and soaking bricks, chimney pipe, clay, building level, sand, tape measure, sieve, steel wire, asbestos, roofing felt, and trestles for high-altitude work.
Erection begins with design. A ready-made scheme is extremely difficult to find. As a rule, it has to be finalized. All masonry rows are drawn in detail, making adjustments. When making even small changes, it is necessary to consult with a good stove-maker.
When making adjustments to the design, it is worth considering the peculiarities of brick masonry stoves:
- The firebox should not be too small. The size of the ash drawer should be such as to ensure sufficient air flow.
- Along the channel the grates are laid. However, it is difficult to find the right size, so not so long grates are installed, across.
- The height of the firebox is no more than half a meter, provided an ash drawer is placed above it. Ideally, eight or nine rows. This allows the stones to heat up to the desired temperature faster. If the furnace is less high, the stones are not sufficiently heated, and soot will accumulate between them.
- The distance between the unprotected elements of the wood structure and the brick wall is at least 30 cm.
- Before laying bricks on the clay-sand mortar, it is necessary to lay them dry according to the scheme, starting from one corner. Select bricks of the required size, so that the joints were not more than 5 mm. Only then they are laid using mortar.
- The laid rows are checked with a construction level, before starting a new one. With the plumb strips installed, verify that the angles are exactly right. Even small deviations require correction.
- Installing the door, start laying bricks from it, rigidly fixing the metal element. The places of adjoining the door, beforehand wrap with asbestos. Fix them with a trellis or steel strips. Small grooves are made in the bricks under the wire, which will ensure a rigid fixation.
- The places where the pipe passes, in contact with the wall, ceiling and roof must be insulated with fireproof materials.
Having chosen the project, make the row – the plan of laying bricks separately for each row.
The weight of even the most modest-sized stove is about 800 kg, so it is necessary to provide a solid foundation.
Brick sauna heater stove – foundation requirements:
- choose a location so that you don’t have to cut out supporting beams and floor boards later on;
- It is more practical not to bind the base for the stove with the foundation of the bath, during shrinkage this will protect the structure from collapse. Between them there should be a gap of not less than 5 cm. To ensure fire safety, it is filled with thermal insulation material;
- The base for the sauna heater and the bath shall be of equal depth;
- the correct base is in the form of an inverted trapezoid – the bottom base should coincide with the size of the stove, and the upper one is increased by 10 cm on all sides.
The stability and durability of the stove depends on the quality of the foundation laid, so it is important to follow the construction technology.
Stages of foundation construction:
- After marking, stakes are hammered into the corners and the trellis is stretched between them;
- dig an excavation half a meter deep, extending at the bottom by 10 cm;
- on a layer of sand, pour broken bricks or crushed stone. Thoroughly tamped, covered with roofing felt;
- The perimeter of the excavation makes a formwork;
- put a reinforcing mesh of rods, leaving a gap of 5 cm between it and the wall of the excavation, using stands or other fixation devices;
- pour concrete mortar, not reaching 15 cm to the edge of the surface. Level the top;
- leave for about a week. The formwork is removed.
After the work is done, the foundation is covered with waterproofing. To do this, lay strips of roofing felt so that it covers the entire surface, protruding beyond the edges by 5 cm. The second layer is placed perpendicularly to the first one. Fix the waterproofing with bitumen mastic.
Tip! Make sure to dilute the clay to a pasty state in water and rub it through a sieve.
Brick stove in a bath: rules for mixing the mortar
The stove is not erected on the basis of a cement mixture, as it cracks under the influence of strong heat. A clay-sand mixture is used for this purpose, which will ensure the long life of the sauna heater. The water must be free of foreign impurities and debris. The sand is sieved beforehand.
Important! Clay for the mortar is soaked for a few days so that it will soak well. Immediately before laying, it is diluted with water, bringing it to the necessary consistency by adding sand.
Homogeneity is achieved by breaking the mixture with a special nozzle or in a mixer, only then begin masonry. Viscosity can be determined by using a stick, it is dipped into the mortar, and then shaken off. If after that a layer of more than 3 mm remains on it, sand is poured in. The mortar should be the consistency of plasticine.
Masonry brick oven
Brick sauna stove with open heater or another variant is impossible to build without a ranking – a scheme of arrangement of bricks in rows. First of all, they are numbered, make cuts, select the size and shape of the pieces. Having prepared everything, start working with the mortar.
Tip! Pre-soaking the bricks in water, until bubbles appear, will provide a good bond.
Furnace with a sauna heater: sequence of erection:
- The first layer of bricks is laid around the perimeter of the furnace. The row is called zero. The angles of this base should be 90 C and correspond exactly to the perimeter ordering scheme. The difference in diagonals should not be higher than 2-3 mm. This is due to the shape of the bricks.
- The thickness of the joints is no more than 5 mm. When laying a row, the joint at the bottom should overlap a whole brick. After laying the first line, move to the clay-sand mortar.
- On the third line, the spool door is installed. Fixing the galvanized wire will ensure a solid installation. The top brick is trimmed for tight masonry.
Tip! Many stovesmiths recommend that the brick above the door be shaped like a wedge, as when the metal is heated strongly, this will create additional strength in the structure. The wire can be replaced by galvanized tin.
- Before laying the fourth row, be sure to check the evenness with a construction level. Start installing the ash pan and grates.
- The ash door is mounted on the sixth line. In the seventh row, a 1.5 cm hollow is cut out for the grate. Do it in such a way that there is a gap between the brick and it.
- Up to the 14th row the masonry is made with a partition, in which the channels are cut in. An opening is made in the front of the sauna heater, where a container is placed to heat the water.
- The fifteenth line is laid in half bricks, setting the halves at an angle. The next three lines are installed with spoon binding.
- In the nineteenth row put a door through which steam will escape. The twentieth and the next are fastened with wire or strips of U-shaped hangers. Start installing the exhaust pipe, the height of which is determined by the size of the bath, but not less than half a meter it must rise above the roof.
Tip! The chimney is coated with a solution of cement or lime.
Brick heater stove: chimney construction
When installing a chimney, take into account that the iron pipe will create condensation during temperature fluctuations. This will lead to the accumulation of soot in it, so it is recommended to replace the metal with brick.
The size of the furnace should match the size of the chimney. After installation, it is led out to a height of not less than half a meter above the roof. Usually asbestos pipe is used for this purpose, which is encased in brick. On the quality of the work, will depend on how well the smoke will be removed from the room.
Tip! The chimney is stacked only from the whole brick, so that the cracked elements and halves do not fall out. The masonry must be very accurate. Only a completely flat surface will prevent the accumulation of soot and dust.
It is contraindicated to narrow the channel of the chimney. Its length from the edges of the chimney to the grate must be at least 5 meters. If it is smaller, the smoke will not cool down quickly, and the heat will fly into the chimney.
At the point of passage in the ceiling, the chimney is surrounded by bricks and insulated with heat-resistant material. The outside is covered with a lime mortar so that if there is a leak, you can immediately find where it occurs.
When all the work is completed, leave the stove for a few days, leaving windows and doors open to allow it to dry. A test fire is performed. To do this, heat the stove for ten minutes with small chips. Do this several times. If condensation appears on the structure, it means that it has not dried out enough.
Brick sauna stove with a closed heater: arrangement of the water heating tank
Often the design of a stove with a closed sauna heater includes a water tank – it is economical and convenient. It is installed so that it consumes maximum heat. Tanks can be built-in or hinged, depending on the size of the furnace. They are installed next to the chimney.
The volume of the tank is calculated taking into account that one person will need 20 liters of hot water. When using the bath for a large company, it is recommended to install a tank of 100 liters. It is better to choose a tank made of stainless steel, so that the water does not turn yellow.
Brick stove with a closed sauna heater and with open stones: features of finishing
Brick Furnaces are ideal for cladding. It heats evenly with the brick.
The most popular cladding materials:
- Clinker tile. It has high heat capacity and refractoriness. Over time, it does not deform, giving the steam room a cozy appearance. In the production process chamotte clay is used. It comes in different colors.
- Izraz. Tiles are box-shaped. Often made by hand. Filled with glaze and decorated with an exquisite pattern. Designed specifically for tiling stoves. The back side has a special design and is attached to the joints with special metal pins, simultaneously with the masonry.
- Majolica. Tiles made by pressing: an improved form of terracotta. The tiles are coated with a glaze and colored patterns are applied.
- Terracotta. Unglazed pressed clay obtained by firing. The tiles are characteristically brown-red in color and have excellent strength values.
Open heater stove can be decorated with stone or brick. With proper care, the cladding will please fans of steam for a long time. Brick sauna stove with a closed heater Regularly wipe off soot and dust. Damaged parts are repaired or replaced.
Today it is difficult to find a competent master stove builder who can put a sauna stove with economical fuel consumption and maximum heat output. Furnace for the bath from bricks can be laid out by yourself, most importantly, clearly follow the recommendations for construction and the scheme of poryadovki. The cost of construction will depend on the selected materials. Furnace is laid only of fireclay bricks, and the doors should be cast iron.
Photos of brick stoves for baths: