Increasingly popular is the construction of residential buildings using modern materials, which includes foam concrete. Building a house of cellular concrete will not only save the budget due to the availability of the material, but also make construction time as short as possible. Foamed concrete buildings are quickly erected and well kept warm, which allows their use in unstable climatic zones.
Features of material production
Foam blocks began to be actively used for construction in the 1990s. The basis for the production of the material is a mixture of water, cement and sand. After the mixture is prepared, bar mixers are used to whip the resulting mass, from which the blocks are formed. To improve the properties, polymers can be added to the blocks to increase the strength of the material.
Due to the simple manufacturing technology, foam blocks are widely used for the construction of private and industrial buildings. Equipment for production is freely available, so you can build a house of foam blocks using your own handmade material. However, often the cost of acquiring equipment and time for production will only slow down the construction.
Choosing a construction project
An important preparatory construction task is to design the future dwelling. Considering one’s desires for construction, there are three options:
- Designing in an architectural firm;
- independent design;
- choosing an off-the-shelf standard design.
When contacting the bureau, specialists will make a building project taking into account all the requests and wishes of the builder. Such a procedure can require considerable financial expenses and waiting time of the project. If the customer plans to build a house of foam blocks on a turnkey basis, this option will be optimal.
To design a house on their own, the owner can take into account absolutely all their wishes, and make a unique structure for themselves. However, this requires minimal knowledge in the field of architecture.
In the third case, a ready-made house project is taken, which is freely available on the Internet. This is the cheapest and easiest way. When choosing, you can see not only projects, but also photos of houses built of foam blocks and choose the best option.
When choosing a project, you need to consider the size and configuration of the land plot, the number of people planned to live in the house, the proximity of communications. The most popular projects will be 8×8 and 9×9 m houses.
The square shape is very advantageous for rational division of space into rooms, such projects are traditional. For a more interesting layout, projects with an elongated side are suitable – 8×10 and 9×10 m.
To choose the number of floors of the project, the size of the site plays a major role. If it is small, then it is not rational to erect a one-story house of foam blocks. Two floors will expand the living space and save space on the site. Usually the first floor is used as a living area, and the second floor or attic is a recreation area. Often the living room and kitchen are combined into one room on the first floor.
Disadvantages and advantages of houses and foam blocks
Like any building material, foam blocks have pros and cons. The former include:
- low thermal conductivity due to the cellular structure. The walls will retain heat well in winter, and keep cool in summer;
- long service life – foam concrete becomes stronger over time;
- high fire safety – untreated foam block does not burn;
- environmental cleanliness – only natural materials are used in the production process. If synthetic substances are added, their index will be no more than 0.5%;
- rapid erection of buildings. Laying bricks of the same volume will take almost 3 times longer;
- The low price of the building material – one of the cheapest in its category. Prices for masonry will also please you;
- Relatively low weight of buildings. Therefore, without fear erect not only two-story houses of foam blocks, but also with a large number of floors;
- ease of processing. The block is easy to saw even with an ordinary hacksaw with a coarse tooth. This makes it possible to build structures of any style and shape;
- The ability to do without finishing for a long time, the need for which is dictated mainly by aesthetic appearance.
But even such a versatile and reliable material has its drawbacks:
- shrinkage. Therefore, it is necessary to wait at least 6 months after the completion of construction before interior and exterior finishing;
- The need for reinforcement. Approximately every fourth row of foam blocks must be additionally reinforced during laying;
- brittleness. This property reduces the load-bearing capacity of the walls. Therefore, an accurate calculation is necessary when using floor slabs as a separation between floors in multi-storey buildings and in houses made of foam blocks with an attic;
- Mandatory trim. Without it, the building will not look quite aesthetically pleasing. Decorative plaster is most often used for exterior finishing;
- The installation of a strip foundation. Piles or similar materials are not suitable in this case.
After approving the design of the house of foam blocks, you can begin construction. For this purpose, a strip foundation is installed. On it is laid waterproofing – usually it is parchment or Ruberoid – to avoid the negative effects of water on the material. It is necessary to ensure the integrity of the waterproofing surface.
After its installation, lay the first layer of blocks. Sand-cement mixture must be used as the mortar for the first layer. Using a construction level, align the foam blocks horizontally. Then the next rows are laid using one of the two bonding mortars:
- sand-cement mortar;
- Special adhesive for blocks.
In the first case, the technology of laying blocks is no different from masonry bricks. With each layer, the block is shifted by half relative to the previous one. Every fourth or fifth layer must be reinforced.
If glue is used, the overall strength of the structure will be higher. The glue is applied to the block with a special comb. Such masonry requires a certain level of skill, as the ability to fix the masonry with subsequent layers is almost impossible.
To strengthen masonry, bars of rebar or wire are used. In the case of masonry on the glue, the thickness of the reinforcement, as a rule, greater than the glue layer. Therefore, a special recess is made in the row of blocks, in which a reinforcing element is laid. After that it is poured with glue mortar and the laying of subsequent rows is continued.
When masonry should not allow mortar to get on the surfaces of the blocks. If such dirt is not removed immediately, cleaning it after drying will be quite problematic.
House of foam blocks – the easiest and most affordable way to build a private house or cottage. Experts say that the process of laying blocks is easier than bricks. Therefore, it can be done by your own efforts. Good performance characteristics of the material will allow the house to become a real fortress for its owners.
Photos of houses made of foam blocks
Save the article to your page: