Types of bathhouses by type of structure
Depends on the source of heating, the materials used, and the type of structure. Parameters are selected individually, taking into account the place where the bath is installed and the taste of the owner.
- Complete. Erected separately and includes a washroom, steam room, relaxation room. A bathhouse near the house can be built in one or two floors with additional rooms.
- Built in. If the plot is small. As an option, the living room is combined with a relaxation area, the washroom is used as a full-fledged bathroom. For bathhouse In the house you just need to find a place for the steam room.
- Outhouse. When there is no room for a steam room in the house, you can make it in an outhouse. You can also put a washroom and a rest room there, if the space allows.
- Cabin. Budget variant of mobile bathhouse. Installed directly on the ground, or low power foundation. Small size is the only disadvantage.
- Tent bathhouse, or disposable bathhouse. Temporary use design. Installed before use, disassembled after use.
The main sources of heating
The steam room should be about 100 C, which a wood, gas, or electric stove can provide.
- Wood stove. Russian baths are equipped with it. It is built of red brick. The firebox is located in the anteroom, so that you can feed the wood without entering the steam room. Modern wood-burning stoves can be made of steel or cast iron.
- Gas stove. The most economical option. Certification and wiring are difficulties you may encounter when using it.
- Electric furnace. The most compact and simple option. Heating is regulated automatically according to the settings. Advantages of the design are quick installation and easy use.
Choosing a place to build a bathhouse
- In order to avoid waterlogging, the bathhouse should stand at a distance from the body of water;
- the structure must be erected from a well or borehole not closer than 20 m;
- You can put it at a distance, or do it in an annex, at the owner’s discretion;
- It is better to place the windows to the west;
- it is better to erect in the backyard;
- Adjacent lots should be remote enough so that neighbors are not inconvenienced;
- An efficient drainage system should be provided and ventilation should be provided;
- It is better to build the bathhouse on the south side. This way it will get enough light and the wind will not annoy the rest;
- It is not recommended to build next to the road.
Warning. The bathhouse with their own hands It is better to start building in the spring. After completing the basic work, the wooden structure is left for six months to allow the material to dry out and give the necessary shrinkage.
Materials for construction
Bathhouse in a private The walls of a private house are made of profiled beams or logs. Such walls perfectly retain heat, keeping it as long as possible, and the smell of resin has a positive effect on health. The disadvantages are increased fire hazard and poorly sealed joints. The first problem is solved by treating with special solutions. Thoroughly caulk the gaps, you can get rid of the second.
Concrete blocks and bricks are budget materials for the construction of walls. Ease of maintenance, good thermal insulation, fire resistance – the advantages of such a bath. In addition, the walls of the building are insulated and carefully sealed from the inside.
How to make a proper sauna – budget option
To enjoy water procedures in the steam room, it is not necessary to build a large bath. If you have a limited budget, you can save money on the following:
- Material for the walls. A bathhouse near the house It is preferable to build from wood, but you can save money by using blocks for this purpose. If you still do not want to deviate from tradition, it is recommended frame technology, using a second-hand board.
- Layout. At the design stage, reduce the square footage to the maximum allowable size. In extreme cases, the bath can consist only of a steam room and a washing room. The rest zone is arranged in a separate room, or refuse it at all. Steam room must comply with all safety rules: in too small a room there is a risk of burning by steam or on the stove.
- Water supply system. The water supply can be replaced by a furnace with a water heating tank.
Important! All points of savings should definitely be discussed with experts. Only they will be able to determine which is undesirable to use, and where it will be appropriate.
How to build a bathhouse with your own hands – the main steps
Construction is carried out gradually, starting with the preparation of the site and finishing with equipping the bath with the necessary accessories.
- Site preparation. Clearing debris, uprooting shrubs and large roots so that nothing interferes with construction.
- Pouring the foundation. For a log cabin, a pole support structure is erected. Before installing the supports, prepare the required number of holes. The posts are installed along the perimeter and under the intersection of the walls. The distance between them is determined individually, taking into account the type of soil and load. The depth should be at least 1 m. This value depends on the degree of frost penetration of the ground. In the pits, a 10 cm layer of a mixture of sand with crushed stone is poured. Asbestos pipes are installed strictly vertically. The armature is placed inside. Around the pipes, the space is filled with concrete mortar. After a few days, a half-brick wall is laid between them.
- Erecting the walls and installing the roof. Traditionally, a beam is used. The foundation is pre-waterproofed and the first row is laid on it, aligning it. The laying is carried out by the method “in a foot”. Continue laying the walls to the required height, leaving openings for mounting windows and doors. Connect the rows with wooden dowels. Insulate with jute or other material. When you reach the roof, the rafters are fixed to the last row with staples, taking into account the design of the roof.
When installing a single-pitch configuration, the rafters are fixed by external, or in combination with internal supports. The lower ends rest on the walls, and the upper ends are connected to form a ridge when installing a gable system. Fasten sheathing boards. Heat, vapor and waterproofing materials are laid. The quality of the bath depends on insulation. Assemble the roof covering.
- Interior trim. Install the necessary communications. Even when creating the foundation, it is necessary to take care of drainage. A drainage well is arranged behind the border of the structure, which is connected by a pipe to the bathhouse, installed on a slope. After that, the floor is made of wood or concrete. The latter variant is tiled.
The wooden floor should leak. To do this, install beams, to which nailed boards, leaving a small gap. For the drainage of water, you can make a small hatch, closing it with a decorative grid. In this case, the floor is installed with a slope.
Important: The wood will last longer if bathhouse next to the house. leave it to air out after each use.
Insulate floor and walls with special materials. Install doors and windows. Plumbing and electrical wiring are installed. Install electrical appliances.
- Shelves and oven. The configuration of the first to choose their own taste. First, a supporting frame of beams is mounted, to which subsequently are nailed boards.
The furnace can be anything, from a traditional sauna heater to a modern electric one. Under the heavy construction is arranged the foundation, taking into account the peculiarities of a particular heater.
- Accessories. Having completed the erection and finishing of the room In a private homeThe bathhouse is supplemented with various accessories: buckets, brooms, a mug made of wood for pouring water, etc. The interior decoration depends on the owner’s imagination.
How to build a bathhouse in a house
If the plot of land is small, to solve the problem will help the option when the bath is arranged directly in the house. This method is much more economical, since it does not require pouring a foundation. The device In a private home The fire safety measures for the steam room must be strictly adhered to. It is important to waterproof and vapor-proof the room so that the built-in bathhouse not harm the house. It is desirable to allocate a separate room for the steam room.
Preparing the room for the installation of a built-in bath
Before you install The bathhouse with their own hands Inside the house, Decide on the place where it will be located. It is better to do it on the first floor or in the basement. Start the arrangement with the design. The size of the room is calculated on the number of people, allocating each three square meters. In this case, the equipment of additional washing room is not necessary.
At this stage, design the connection to the sewage system and the location of the ventilation duct. If you plan to install an electric furnace, it is necessary to take care in advance about the power wiring. If necessary, three-phase network is equipped.
Purchase the following materials: tile, cork board or mineral wool, battens, expanded clay, corrugated pipe, roofing felt, metal hose, aluminum foil. Proceed to the construction. In the first place provide electricity to the devices.
Electrification of a built-in bathhouse
When selecting an electric stove, you need to pay special attention to power to ensure quality heating of the steam room. It is better to opt for a model with a terminal box located on the back panel. The device is adapted for the bath, with enhanced protection against moisture. Under the electric furnace it is necessary to build a foundation.
Is it possible to yourself Electrify a bathhouse? Yes, if you adhere to safety measures and perform actions in a strict sequence: place an additional circuit breaker on the switchboard, in a special corrugated pipe to lay the cable, install a separate socket for the furnace.
Installation of ventilation for the sauna inside the house
Quality ventilation will protect the wood in the steam room from swelling, mold, and premature rot.
The steps of installation:
- Ventilation. The best place to install an inlet duct is behind the stove in the floor. Cold air will warm up instantly, and circulate through the steam room. The outlet hole is placed at the top, diagonally to the inlet hole.
- The ventilation duct is routed from one duct to the other.
- Install gate valves to regulate air flow.
- To prevent hot air from entering the living space in the event of a fire, a fire hydrant is installed. When the extinguishing system is activated, it will be closed
Important: The steam room will heat up faster and better only if ventilation is properly installed. Otherwise, the hot air will only be near the stove.
Installing indoor plumbing in a bathhouse
Before arranging the floor, it is necessary to install a sewer system. The easiest way is to cut a pipe into the general system.
If this is not possible, you have to equip the drain ourselves doing the work in this sequence:
- Withdrawing at least half a meter from the building, dig a drain hole at least one and a half meters deep.
- Make a trench to the bathhouse.
- For the drain, equip a recess.
- Backfill the pits with a mixture of sand and gravel.
- Install pipes with a slope to the septic tank.
- Coat the joints with cement mortar.
Warning. Do not install the drain directly next to the steam room. Constant humidity can cause mold and dampness.
In the steam room, the floor is lined with wood or tile, using heat-resistant tile for this purpose.
Floor Finishing Sequence:
- The future floor is filled with expanded clay.
- Concrete is poured under the slope to the drain hole.
- Lay a waterproofing foil or roofing felt.
- Make a screed of a mixture of sand and cement, observing the slope to the drain. Around the furnace with refractory bricks are laid the base.
- Install the tile.
The flooring should have a rough surface, or a ramp of wood is installed on the floor.
Covering the ceiling and walls of the steam room
Hardwood is the best option for finishing the walls. Coniferous wood is not suitable because it contains a lot of resinous substances.
- The parchment or bituminous paper is fixed with an overlapping lath of wood. This process is performed exclusively in brick rooms.
- Mount the frame on the walls and ceiling with timbers.
- Make cable wiring to the places where the lighting fixtures will be located.
- A dry pipe is installed under the perimeter ceiling to ensure that the fire is extinguished.
- Put insulation between the joists so that it fits tightly against the wall.
- Fix the layer with aluminum foil, mirror side inward. This will ensure fast heating and keep the heat in the steam room as long as possible.
- The joints are sealed with metallized tape.
- Strictly horizontally fasten the crate. This is done carefully so that the foil is not torn.
- Cross bars are used to mount transverse frames, on which later the shelves will be attached.
- The ceiling and walls are lined with linings.
Attention! When installing a suspended ceiling, insulation is laid on top only after cladding. The best material for this is glass wool.
Peculiarities of arrangement of benches in the bath, built into the house
Mounted to a pre-assembled frame under the battens. Made of carefully sanded boards. Galvanized fasteners should be placed inside the base, so as not to get burnt at high temperature. Before use, the shelves are lubricated with a special oil.
Installing the door in a built-in bathtub
The requirements for the entrance door to the bathhouse: to open exclusively to the outside, to be small and upholstered with insulation. A low threshold will prevent cold air from entering and reduce heat loss. A door made of tongue and groove sanded board is preferred.
Features of an electric furnace for a built-in steam room
The power of the furnace is calculated according to the formula: per 1 sq.m. of the steam room 1 kV.
Electric furnace installation sequence:
- The surface of the walls around the place where the appliance will be installed is lined with asbestos board.
- On a pre-prepared base of about 20 cm high install the sauna heater. A space of 25 cm must be left around it.
- Washed stones are placed in a special container.
How to equip a mobile built-in sauna with your own hands
If it is not possible to allocate a whole room for the steam room, you can put a separate structure in any room.
- tongue and groove board;
- aluminum foil;
- mineral wool;
- Wooden linings;
- waterproofing film.
The first thing to do is to choose a place for the construction. It is better to mount it in a corner of the room. The bath must be no more than two meters in height. The drainage system must be connected and the ventilation must be made beforehand.
Stages of work:
- To the place where the cabin is installed, bring electricity, using thermally insulated cable. If an electric furnace will be used for heating, an additional circuit breaker is installed on the switchboard.
- Along the perimeter of the future construction, the floor is mounted. On the beams are nailed flooring from edged boards, lay a layer of waterproofing and mount tongue and groove board under the slope to the hole of the drain.
- Strictly vertically along the perimeter of the steam room set the beams and perform on five levels of strapping, placing them at the same distance.
- A layer of vapor barrier is padding the base from the outside, and it covers the walls adjacent to the structure. From the outside of the frame is covered with wooden linings, leaving room for a door. Inside, lay a layer of insulation. Fix the top of the aluminum foil, reflective surface inward. The joints are sealed with metallized adhesive tape.
- The top is covered with timbers so that an air corridor is left between the vapour barrier and the cladding.
- From the inside of the steam room is lined with clapboard. A door is installed in the room. Light fixtures are placed in heat-resistant sealed lamps.
- The furnace location is lined with galvanized sheet metal. A heating device is installed. Mount the benches and shelves. The wood is treated with a special oil. Stones are placed in the bowl.
Building a freestanding or built-in bathhouse is a laborious and troublesome process that requires special attention to detail. The above recommendations will help you choose the right location and materials for construction. By following the step-by-step instructions, you can build a safe and high-quality steam room yourself.
Photos of Saunas by Building Type