The Russian bath has been around for thousands of years because of the positive effects of the procedures on people’s health. In contrast to the Turkish Hamam and the Finnish sauna, there is a high humidity and high temperature inside the bath, which contributes to the formation of a significant amount of hot steam. Taking into account such characteristics as practicality and convenience, the connoisseurs of bathing give preference to the native Russian bath.
Brief Article Content:
Description of furnace with closed heater for Russian baths
The principle of the first bathhouses built “black style” was to bring the masonry stones into contact with an open flame, making them red-hot. An open heater does not imply direct contact between the stones and the fire. More effective in terms of heating the room is a closed-type sauna heater, whose design features are identical to those of an oven.
A closed-type sauna heater can be built in two ways:
- Constant action, where with the absence of direct contact between the flame and the stone the design is used not only to increase the temperature in the steam room.
- Intermittent action, where smoke and fire pass through the stove, so touching the door before the wood is completely burned is not recommended. Soot will accumulate on the stones and after contact with water soot can cover the entire sauna room.
Bath Stoves vary:
|The material used to make them||
|Type of fuel.||
Advantages of a stove for the Russian bath with a closed heater
Advantages sauna stoves with a closed heater consist of the following:
- Carbon monoxide passes by steamy Due to the absence in it of a fuel chamber with a door. Therefore, the steam room is filled with aromas coming from herbal infusions, brooms.
- The furnace structure is heated evenly, creating optimal conditions for obtaining light steam, a pleasant microclimate, comfortable stay of people in the bathhouse.
- The presence of complete safety. A person pouring water on the stones will never get burned by the steam. Installation of the fuel chamber in an adjacent room guarantees the safety of people present in the bath.
- The stones heat up quickly and deeply, hold a high temperature for a long time, it does not make sense to add wood often.
- Once the room has been heated properly, the desired temperature is retained for a long time, because a closed type sauna heater cools down very slowly.
- To maintain the desired temperature in the bath, it is sufficient to open or close the door of the construction. If the temperature is too high, the lid should be closed.
List of mandatory materials and tools for building a Russian sauna stove with a closed lid
Before you begin construction, you must decide on the materials. To erect A closed heater stove for a Russian bathhouse It is necessary to opt for high-strength chamotte (a type of brick), which has a sufficiently high index of fire resistance. The outer walls can be made of ceramic bricks.
Mixing masonry mortar involves sand and clay diluted with water. It is possible to purchase a ready-made construction mixture, which is based on heat-resistant cement. As for the stones themselves, it is necessary to give preference to copies with high heat capacity, resistant to cracking when exposed to cold water. It is desirable to choose stones of rounded, even shape. Ground river cobblestones are ideal.
List of basic tools needed for construction sauna stoves with a closed heater, tak:
- Mortar mixing trough.
- Hammer – pickaxe.
- Saw – hacksaw.
- Construction level.
The list is not exhaustive. It is mandatory that you will need iron The flap, the hinges for the door, and the door itself.
Basic rules for installing a Russian bath stove
To Russian sauna stove with a closed heater In order for the stove to serve faithfully for many years and give pleasure to fans of steam, it is necessary to know the rules of its construction and strictly follow them.
Experts recommend listening to such advice:
- The furnace door and the sauna heater door in the sauna stoves with a closed sauna heater “looked” in different directions.
- Installation of a metal Russian sauna stove with a closed heater requires the erection of a foundation of concrete capable of preventing the possibility of ignition when sparks hit the floor. The recommended height of the foundation – 300 mm or more, followed by the laying of two rows of chamotte, bonded with clay mortar.
- The base of such a furnace with an enclosed sauna heater for The sauna stove is prepared in advance. A 150 mm thickening is made at the point where the pipe exits the masonry.
- If there are wooden elements too close to the hot surface of the stove, they should be covered with a thermal insulation base.
- The location of the pipe exit from the furnace in the roof through the ceiling opening is finished with a plaster mortar, then treated with a lime mortar.
- On the roof, a brickwork is constructed for the outlet of the pipe, the height of which should not be less than 500mm. This will prevent the roof from catching fire and igniting the whole structure.
Requirements for the foundation
A bathhouse with an enclosed sauna heater The wood is the preferred method of construction, which means that fire safety requirements for this category of facilities must be taken seriously. All walls and ceilings must be lined with non-combustible materials. Installation furnace in room is done at a distance of at least 250 – 300 mm from the walls. To get the maximum heat output it is worth placing sauna stove with a closed sauna heater In the center of the room.
The characteristics and area of the foundation depend on the material used to make the Russian sauna stoves with closed heaterand its dimensions. The area of the base is calculated in advance.
After it is necessary to proceed to the execution of such works:
- dig a hole 500 mm – 600 mm deep;
- Cover the bottom with a layer of wet sand;
- the second layer – broken bricks or crushed stone (layer thickness – about 100 mm);
- construct a formwork of planks;
- install a reinforced mesh;
- Pour concrete mortar into the formwork (concrete must be purchased of proper quality. Otherwise, the foundation will eventually crumble);
- Allow the mortar to set completely (a couple of days);
- Remove the formwork;
- The top layer of the foundation is lined with Ruberoid to strengthen waterproofing.
Useful information: The height of the foundation above the floor should be at least 100 – 150mm.
Recommended dimensions of the sauna heater
To size Stoves for Russian baths with a closed heater The insulation methods have an effect on the Russian bathhouseThe quality of the material used, the immediate dimensions of the steam room, the stones used for heating, their size and quantity. It is believed that if the volume of the steam room is 15 sq.m. it is enough to install A stove with an enclosed sauna heater for The dimensions are 300mm x 400mm x 300mm. These dimensions are recommended, but not binding, so may be slightly adjusted upward or downward.
Before you start making a metal stove, you must decide on the individual volume of the sauna heater, based on the dimensions of the intended construction. It is desirable to make a preliminary drawing of the finished stove before starting the work. Bear in mind that the volume of the firebox is 40-50% larger than that of the sauna heater.
The location of the sauna heater inside the stove is also important. Practice shows that the optimum location is in the upper part of the back wall. There is always a significant temperature there, which promotes deep heating of the stones.
Furnace With enclosed sauna heater requires regular maintenance. It is necessary to determine a place for free approach, water supply, laying of stones. The location of the hatch should allow, without excessive effort, to reach by hand the most distant point. The supply of water must be safe so as not to get body burns.
Tubes are placed inside the sauna heater that are in contact with all the stones. A funnel is made at the point where the water is supplied. As soon as the tubes are placed, the stoning takes place. Water flows through the tubes, falls on the heated stones, turning into steam.
Erecting a brick stove with a closed heater for the bath by yourself
It is necessary to have certain skills in the construction business in order to arrange a sauna stove. Amateurs may not achieve the desired result. The effectiveness of the construction directly depends on compliance with the technology of masonry bricks. The quality of the material itself, the method of its laying, the mortar used and the humidity index of the brick also play an important role. With proper masonry construction will have a solid look. Poor quality masonry is determined by the presence of vertical joints in the absence of a binding.
The quality of the masonry must be such as to prevent the passage of combustion products from the furnace to the outside. And the air currents entering the structure have a negative effect on the efficiency of the structure. For masonry to be beautiful and durable it is necessary to choose the right material: bricks are amenable to splitting and beveling. Before you start masonry, bricks are soaked in clean water for 10 seconds, then placed on a layer of mortar. Experts recommend laying the clay by hand. A trowel is necessary for external masonry.
The steps for erecting brickwork for a stove are as follows:
- Holding a brick in one hand, with the other hand the clay is applied to it and smoothed out in a thin layer.
- The brick is placed on the foundation.
- Press the brick down a little and move it back and forth.
- Remove excess clay from both sides of the masonry with your hands.
- Subsequent bricks are laid according to the same principle. And the mortar is applied not only on one side of the brick, but also on the end face.
You can also use another method of masonry, the essence of which is as follows:
- The mortar is covered with the masonry place and smoothed by hands.
- A wet brick is taken in the hand, and clay is applied to the face of the brick.
- The brick is placed on the set place in the row. Sliding movements by hand are mandatory.
Specialist recommendations. It is obligatory to pre-lubricate the bricks. Otherwise it will begin to pull moisture from the mortar and the latter will become dehydrated and quickly thicken. This will make it problematic to remove excess clay. The joints will be ugly and thick.
Let’s move on to making the stove itself. To do this, we’ll need:
- 250 pcs. of quality bricks;
- Sand and clay;
- Reinforcement with a diameter of 30 mm and a length of 2.5m;
- 2 pieces of ash door, metal door;
- Quality metal pipe, 15cm in diameter, 1.2m long;
- Asbestos cement pipe with a diameter of 80mm – 130mm length 2.5m;
- water and gas pipes with a diameter of 30cm – 40cm in length of half a meter;
- 5 – 10mm sheets of steel one meter long;
- tinplate galvanized thickness in 1m volume of 1 sq.m.
If to arrange the foundation in the condition of any person, far from the construction, then properly lay out the furnace from the brick is not able to everyone. It is necessary to have certain skills in the field of construction and work experience. The process is quite complex and painstaking, requiring special knowledge and skill.
Professional point of view
Only professionals are able to erect a sauna stove of any configuration without paper tips. It is more difficult for beginners. First, we draw and print out the poryadovka, determine the availability of a grinder, an angle, an abrasive wheel, pliers, a scoop with a broom. Drawing can be taken and ready-made, indicating the number of bricks and their place of laying. It remains to carefully follow the scheme and do not go astray during the work. The scheme also assumes the presence and location of grates, sliders and doors, their fixing.
Useful information! Never allow a wooden wall to come in direct contact with a sauna stove. It may cause a fire in the room. Leave a distance of at least 250 mm from the wall. Fill the free space with non-combustible materials.
Many experts agree that first the bricks of each row should be laid without mortar, so that there is a complete picture and there is a possibility of quality fitting them. Having completed such a “fitting”, you can use mortar. It is mandatory to use bricks placed for a few seconds in a container with clean water.
The masonry must be strictly vertical. Joints must be made even, observing the same thickness. Presumably the horizontal joints are 5mm thick, the vertical ones are 3mm thick. To strengthen the upper parts of the openings used metal corners. Once the last row is laid out according to the scheme, you can congratulate yourself on the first victory and enjoy the results of the work. The first experience in the arrangement of the furnace for the Russian bath with a closed heater is acquired.
It is possible to determine the quality of the work done and the effectiveness of the sauna stove only after 15 days. This amount of time is necessary for complete hardening of the mortar and the formation of the stove and the chimney of a single structure. Do not use the stove at full blast right away. First, heat it gently, and then use it fully, without restrictions.
Beginning the installation of a sauna stove using metal
The erection of such a plan of stoves is not without a preliminary drawing. It should be remembered that it is quite difficult to keep the temperature in the room at 65 degrees if the metal walls of the furnace are very hot.
In order to control the normal temperature, you must resort to the following methods:
- Lining of the furnace is carried out. The process involves lining the furnace with bricks with refractory properties. It is possible to lay bricks on the rib. The thickness of the lining will be 60mm. You can also use 30mm fireclay. It should be borne in mind that the furnace must be increased in volume, since a significant part of it will go to the lining. This method has a significant disadvantage. Heated construction produces hot smoke, which can lead to fire hazards. The best option is to use a tank for cooling or to install a sauna heater on the pipe. It is possible to use the services of a heating panel, however, this is a complicated process.
- A brick screen is installed.. It is installed around the iron stove for the Russian bath. To build it, you need ceramic bricks. Crumbled ceramic bricks are left in the wall to mount the doors. It will help to control the temperature of the air in the steam room. This option advantageously differs from the previous one, because it can regulate the temperature of the air in the room. But the option is not particularly practical, because there is excessive heating of the back wall of the structure, so there is a need to use fire-resistant steel. In order to extend the service life of the metal sauna stove, it is necessary to use only high-quality metal of great thickness in the manufacture. Sheets are installed at the bottom and top of the furnace.
Special attention must be paid to the seams. If the seams are of poor quality, the metal construction will quickly go rancid and fail. Manufacturers, in order to avoid such problems, use bent structures in the manufacturing process. Prefer to minimize the number of seams on the top of the stove. Independently bend 10-millimeter sheets of metal is difficult enough and is not possible for all men. Therefore, it is worth taking care of the utmost quality seams.
If you have a great desire to erect brickwork, create and install furnace equipment can be done by yourself. The main thing – to have a minimum of experience in the field of construction, know how to work with a welding machine, steadily follow the technological process. The result will not make you wait long. Soon you will be proud of the result – a stove with a closed heater for the Russian bath. And it will surpass the characteristics of the factory analogues.
Russian bathhouses with a closed stove – 100 photos
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