The basement of the house is located between the foundation and the first floor of the building. First of all, it is designed to protect the home from moisture and low temperatures entering the living space. Let’s try to understand what this construction is and how to properly make a house basement.
The plinth of a private home is quite an important element in the construction of a building, however, not everyone clearly understands its functions. The main function of this element can be learned from its name. In Italian, “zoccolo” means the foot of the building or, in other words, what the main structure of the building is set on.
It is an essential element for any building, whether it is the basement of a brick house, a farmhouse, etc. The basic principles of construction of the basement of a private house do not differ from the principles of its construction in the barn. The main purpose of the basement is to protect the premises of the house from environmental aggressors (cold, moisture, etc.). That is why this element of the house is insulated and waterproofed.
Many people wonder whether to build a house wide or high. There is no right answer to this question, and everything depends on many factors, including the area itself, how much it allows you to do the load on the soil. And it’s not always about a good foundation. I personally think that the most important thing is not to make a house into a “box”, either up or down, otherwise the whole sense of a beautiful house will disappear, and the house will look like some kind of an administrative building.
Watch video: Tiling the Basement of the House
The connection of the basement with other planes of the house are necessarily insulated from the aggressive effects of the environment. Thanks to the waterproofing and thermal insulation moisture does not penetrate into the building material and does not give a chance to develop condensation in the room. In addition, the plinth prevents the penetration of cold into the house and serves as an additional decorative element.
Thanks to the wide range of finishing materials on the construction market, there are many opportunities to realize your design ideas through the finishing of the basement of the house. You can get inspired by looking at photos of interesting home basement designs online or in magazines.
Important functions of a basement also include:
- Creating an air layer that provides insulation to the basement of the house.
- Stable air circulation, which ensures a long service life of the structure.
- Raising the walls of the house, which helps protect them from moisture and damage.
Types of plinths.
Depending on the connection with the outer wall, the plinth is of different types: the receding, protruding, in a single plane. According to experts, the last option is the most irrational, because at the same level of the plinth and the wall, moisture easily penetrates into the room. The ideal option would be a recessed plinth.
Some of the major advantages of the fallback design include:
- overload protection;
The overhanging section of the wrap-around plinth will create additional protection for the room from rainwater. It looks attractive. Unfortunately, this type of construction is not desirable in the construction of a house with thin walls.
As for the protruding plinth, it is made if the presence of the basement / cellar is implied. This option is suitable for a house with thin walls. This type of basement protects against moisture and low temperatures.
If the house is arranged on a strip foundation, the basement will be the part that protrudes above the ground. A post foundation of a house implies a basement in the form of walls between the posts. Another name for the basement is zaborka. In addition, such a plinth significantly strengthens the base of the house.
Installing a basement on different types of foundations
The design and features of a basement depend directly on the type of foundation. For example, a strip foundation requires a basement that will carry the load-bearing function. For a columnar foundation, the basement acts as protection from adverse environmental conditions.
Several types of basement structures are suitable for this type.
- Monolithic. This type of plinth forms a single structure with the foundation.
- Brick. Bricks are erected on top of the foundation. Ideal solution for log houses.
- Concrete. The basis of such construction are concrete slabs, which are laid on top of the foundation or as a base.
If the building is to be erected on a pile foundation type, there are the following options for basement construction.
Hinged plinth. It requires a purlin around the perimeter of the building, on which the cladding will be attached. The main advantage – easy installation. Such a plinth of the house is easy to equip with their own hands. This option will not work if a warm basement of the house is needed.
The wall between the piles. It will cover the basement. If the foundation is not too deep, you should install a strip foundation around the perimeter and finish with bricks.
Basement waterproofing: recommendations
The basement of a home is exposed to moisture, rain, melting snow, etc. Moisture that accumulates in the basement materials can rise to other floors and enter the living areas. Salt stains will appear on the walls, the facade will lose its appeal, and the thermal conductivity of the house walls will increase. To avoid these problems it is necessary to install high quality and reliable waterproofing.
The most susceptible to such environmental influences is the area located within thirty centimeters of the ground level. In other words, the height of the water barrier should not be less than this figure. Ideally, the protected height of the basement of the house varies in the region of 70-80 centimeters.
If there is a basement in the house, two waterproofing belts must be installed. They are usually located at the level of the basement and in the basement. In the latter, horizontal waterproofing is installed, which prevents the rise of moisture through the capillaries of the building.
There are several types of waterproofing for the basement, but the most popular ones are: cladding and laminating.
The first consists of several layers of waterproofing, which includes bitumen, polymers, mastic and various polymer solutions. Among the advantages of coating waterproofing ease of application and low price. Disadvantages: poor frost resistance and short life (service life of not more than five years).
The adhesive waterproofing consists of roll membranes made of bitumen up to five millimeters thick (several layers) and a film.
When planning the construction of a house, consider the technical characteristics of the future building and the desired results. The material studied in advance will help in the future to carefully design the building taking into account all the features.
Photo of a house basement