70 photos and instructions for drilling with your own hands

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Water is required for the improvement of any suburban household. It is needed for construction work, for landscaping and simply for personal needs.

But what to do if there is no centralized water supply system on the homestead plot? An autonomously organized object – a well or a well – will be the way out. The difference between them lies in the depth of aquifers, operating time and cost. The preferred option – the installation of wells for water.

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Types of wells

A borehole is a special structure (an excavation or cavity in the bowels of the earth) of cylindrical shape, with a length much greater than the diameter.

Devices are subdivided by depth and method of penetration. The depth of the well is determined by the location of aquifers and the required quality of the fluid. Based on the terrain, aquifers are located in the earth’s crust in different ways.

If the landscape is flat, it is very likely that water is deposited all around. If there are hills, it is recommended to drill in the lowlands. Classification of structures contains several varieties.

Abyssinian well.

First realized by British engineer Norton in the 19th century. The maximum depth reaches 10-15m. The design consists of a set of pipes up to 60 mm in diameter, which are assembled together by a threaded connection. At the end of the last link is a “needle filter”.

This is a sharp tip that performs several functions: it pierces the ground when installing the well and cleans the water from large fractions and contaminating particles. Installation of the abyssine pipe consists of lifting the pipe with a tripod and hammering it into the ground.

Advantages include compact size, ability to be placed in any available area, easy maintenance, and low financial cost.

Fluid is raised by force, in the classic way – by a hand pump. Photos of the Abyssinian borehole are shown below.

Sand well.

The structure is deepened to 15-40m. The borehole is formed by a pipe with a cross section of 100-180 mm. At its end there is a stainless filter element, welded to the first link of the drill string. The average service life of the product in constant operation is 15 years.

If the borehole becomes silted, contaminated, it is flushed. If the process has not led to the desired result, it will be necessary to drill a new borehole, located near the previous one.

Among the positive aspects are a democratic price compared to an artesian well, lower content of dissolved iron.

Artesian well (for limestone)

It is structurally similar to a sand well. The main difference is the absence of a filtering mesh in the lower section of the pipes and the depth of the source. Water from such structures comes from aquifers located in the thickness of limestone. Due to this it is clean, with a small degree of mineralization.

Advantages:

  • Performance. Capable of supplying consumers with liquid in the volume from 1 to 3m3/hour.
  • Uninterrupted water supply. Water output is not affected by the time the pump is running. In five-minute or two-hour mode the flow rate is the same.
  • Bacteriological purity. Artesian layers are practically not subject to contamination from the upper layer of soil, sewage runoff.
  • Long life. Operation of the well with one pipe occurs within 20-30 years. When using 2 pipes (plastic inserted into the iron one) functions for up to 50 years.

There is only one significant disadvantage – high price.

Technologies of drilling different types of wells

Independent drilling of artesian wells for water is a time-consuming and complicated process. It is preferable to use the services of special organizations. Abyssinian and sandy wells “turnkey” – quite another matter.

The most popular are auger, rotary and percussion drilling varieties. They are all done manually or mechanized. The technologies differ in the way the rock is broken down and extracted.

Auger drilling is considered the most budget-friendly option. It is made with the help of a special screw mechanism – auger. By rotating, the auger plunges into the soil. The broken soil is taken to the surface by the blades. The limitation of auger drilling is the type of soil. Only non-hard rocks can be drilled well. On stony surfaces the auger is powerless.

The rotary method can help drill through rocky formations. The tool is a drill pipe with a roller cone bit at the end. Receiving rotation from the rig’s drive, the bit’s edges cleave the ground. The soil is lifted to the surface with drilling mud that is pumped into the pipe by a pump.

The percussion-rock technology is the slowest of all. The idea is to use a trench. It is a piece of pipe with thick walls. On the top of it there is a cutout to extract the soil, and on the bottom – a ball or petal valve. When it hits the ground, the valve opens and grabs the soil.

Instructions for constructing a well

  • Determine the drilling location.
  • Prepare the tools: drill (auger, rod), winch, rods, pump, shovel and casing pipes. It is impossible to create a deep well without a derrick. Its height should be slightly greater than the total length of the rod.
  • Dig a hole of 1.5×1.5x2m. Protect the walls of such a pit with boards or plywood. The pit is necessary to prevent the surface layers of soil from crumbling during drilling.
  • The assembled drilling tool is set vertically and plunged into the ground. Every 50 cm the drill is removed from the ground with the help of a winch and cleaned. Drilling is continued until the aquifer is reached.
  • Once water is found, casing is installed and a caisson is made. A caisson is a chamber to house a pump. A common material for its construction is plastic, brick, concrete or metal.
  • The pumping equipment is connected.

Getting started is not too difficult. The drill digs into the soil easily. But with each new plunge, drilling gets harder and harder. If the drill is stuck and will not rise to the surface, it is recommended to turn it counterclockwise and try to pull it out.

Choosing a pump to lift water from a well

The final step in providing water for your home is to lift it from the source. Well pumps are responsible for this.

According to the place of installation, surface and submersible models are distinguished. The first include devices operating on the principle of suction. They are suitable for wells up to 8 m. Surface pumps will be an excellent choice for an Abyssinian well.

For an artesian or filtration well, this type is not suitable. Therefore, it is necessary to buy a submersible product. When selecting it, the depth of the well should be taken into account.

In the passport of each pump data about the maximum height to which water can rise is given. It is better to buy units with a small performance reserve, i.e. for a well with a length of 60m to pick up a pump designed for a depth of 70m.

An important point is the automatic no-load protection. If water has stopped flowing to the mechanism, but the pump continues to work, it can cause overheating. Automatics will cut off the power in time and save the pump from breakdown.

By design, a distinction is made between centrifugal and vibration pumps. Water supply in the first case is carried out by a vane wheel, and in the second – by an oscillating diaphragm.

The advantage of vibrating machines is their price, ease of installation and repair. But over time, the vibrating action can destroy the soil or the casing. Experts advise to consider vibrating machines as a temporary option.

A centrifugal pump is safer. It is selected according to the capacity, size and maximum working depth.

Photo of the water well


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