After you have purchased a plot of land for a country house, you should not immediately plan to lay the foundation, erect the building and arrange the garden. Likewise, don’t be in a hurry to get excited after buying a house. After all, there is an important point that many people miss – the creation and modernization of the drainage system.
These works are quite complicated, require special skills and abilities. But it is possible to cope with them yourself. Moreover, the services of specialists are very expensive. Let’s discuss together how to properly and efficiently perform site drainage using modern technology.
What is the purpose of drainage infrastructure?
Drainage is a set of utilities that ensures that groundwater, as well as meltwater and rainwater, is not trapped on the site, reducing the risk of waterlogging of the area. It will be naturally removed from the foundations, which will prevent soil movement and extrusion of the building due to frost heave.
Spot, or local, drainage allows water to be diverted from specific areas. It is installed, for example, under roof gutters, in the area where taps are installed for watering or car washing.
Linear design is focused on the removal of moisture from large areas of the lawn area. In this case, a variety of trays and channels are used, supplemented by sand catchers, protective grates, etc.
A more effective way to drain a site and protect it from the accumulation of excess moisture would be to install a set of diversion pipes. They are laid with a slope in the direction of the well or collector.
Installation of pipes can be made at a depth of up to 1.5 m, i.e. will be below the bottom of the foundation. In this way you can provide a quality drainage of groundwater. Therefore, they are laid not only on the perimeter of the buildings, but also in the middle of the plot herringbone in the direction of the well with a step of 10-20 m.
If the house is on a slope, such a system is easier to arrange compared to the situation when the building is located on flat terrain. In this case, you have to vary the depth of trenches, creating a slope of 10-30 mm per 1 m of pipe.
But for long drains there is a large height difference, which significantly disturbs the design. In such a case it is recommended to use several wells:
- Swivel wells – are installed at pipe joints and serve to clean the entire system.
- Water collection – used to collect moisture with subsequent forced pumping.
- Absorption – more than 2 m deep with the possibility of withdrawal of excessive water through the bottom into the sandy or sandy loam soil. A filtering layer of sand, gravel or crushed stone is created at the bottom of such a well.
In the photo of the drainage system, arranged on dacha plots, you can see the specifics and differences of the proposed two technologies.
Surface drainage arrangement
Despite the fact that this option does not require complex engineering calculations, the scheme of drainage for the site should still be. This option is universal when draining small areas. It is recommended to prepare a route constructed “herringbone”. The distance between the drains depends on the features of the soil. For example, for clay soils it is less, for sandy soils – more.
During the work, a trench of up to 350 mm in depth is dug. If the communications are put in a sandy soil, the width of the trench will be the same. For clay soils and loams requires a wider base – up to 450 mm. It is necessary to arrange one central water pipe, where to direct all the side pipes.
The water receiver must be installed in the lower part of the site. The size of the excavation for the well is determined by the size of the vessel. If the installation is planned on the sandy soil, the option with a filtering well is suitable.
For water drainage from the site to be most effective, the slope must be clearly observed. To check through the trench a good water pressure is passed. If it passes quickly and without delays in the connecting blocks of drains, then the construction is correct. If there are delays, it is necessary to correct the grooves in the slope.
The ditch or their system should be covered with a film or tarpaulin. The geotextile used, for example, should cover not only the bottom, but also go over the slopes. The insulation material should be securely fixed with nails, and the walls should be reinforced with spacers.
The bottom of the trench should be backfilled with a 100 mm layer of wood chips, and then with fine gravel, crushed stone or previously removed soil. The trench can also be concreted, but this method is more time consuming and costly. Installation of drain pipes and storm drains will improve the quality of the entire drainage system.
Construction of an in-depth drain
If you want to know how to make drainage on the plot, as much as possible shielding your country house from waterlogging, it is necessary to study in detail the technology of arrangement of the deep structure. Especially it is necessary on the territories with an elevated level of groundwater. The technology under consideration will help to perfectly drain the land, preserving the external presentability of the landscape.
At the initial stage, a plan is created with lines drawing the locations of the pipes. The direction of the withdrawal is from the slope. The depth of laying pipes is determined by the type of soil – for sandy type trench is dug to 1 m, and for dense soil 0.5 m is enough.
Take into account also the ambient temperature during the winter period. After all, in prolonged frosty weather there is a risk of bursting the pipe with residual water, and the movement of the ground can easily crush them.
Drainage of an area with a high level of groundwater will be more reliable and durable, if you use perforated pipes made of plastic. Additionally, they should be covered with a textile for better insulation.
The width of the trenches is more than 300 mm. All pipes are brought together in a common system that ensures the discharge of moisture in a single point. A slope of 20-40 mm per 1 m of pipe should be provided.
At the lowest point of the area is equipped with a receiving well. If the area of the arrangement is small, then the accumulation and filtering types of receivers are applicable. Extensive areas with clay soils and loams are equipped with storage wells up to 1000 liters in volume.
The bottom of the trenches is covered with fine gravel and geotextile is placed on top of it. It is important to ensure that the material overlaps the slopes and is secured with stakes. On top of the rubble should be filled with medium gravel. And only then the pipe should be installed. Its diameter should not be less than 110 mm.
Where the drain turns, inspection manholes should be placed, the dimensions of which depend on the projected volume of water moving. The pipe is connected to the installation hole by means of a coupling sleeve with pre-treatment with sealant.
This technology is also used when attaching the drain to the well spigot. Only in this way you will be able to make a good drainage on the garden plot. Do not forget to test the system!
Layers are placed on top of the laid pipe:
- fine gravel;
- quarry sand;
Excessive accumulation of water in the soil in the summer house can spoil the entire vacation experience. Therefore, homeowners should be extremely careful to install a drainage system that allows timely and complete drainage of sediment and groundwater.
It’s not too easy to do, but it’s necessary. This way you will protect the foundation of the house and the fertile soil layer in the garden.
A picture of the drainage on the property